无论是写什么类型的学术文章，我们都需要引述别人的观点的观点。在英语里有很多引述观点的词，如find，suggest, discover, support, show, indicate, cite, confirm等等，除了他们用于引述不同的内容，意思区别，有很多词还隐含作者本身的观点，甚至有褒贬义，所以用的时候并不是完全通用的，下面就让我们来分别看下吧。
1. reporting research activities: （引述研究活动）
这类词有discuss, look at, examine, study, investigate, consider (+noun phrase)，一般后面加名次词组，引述的内容一般是别人做了一个什么样的调查。
2. reporting findings: （引述研究的发现）
这类词有discover, find, suggest, indicate, show (+that…)，后面一般加that引导的宾语从句，引述的内容是别人做了研究以后得出的结论或者发现。
3. reporting arguments: （引述论点）
这类词有suggest, indicate, argue, point out, claim, note (+that)，右面一般也加that引导的宾语从句，引述的内容是别人的论点。
1. argue：中文里这个词翻译成“争论”，感觉肯定不是中性的（想一下，面红耳赤，像两只公鸡 ）。但是argue在英文里恰恰就是个非常中性的词，describing somebody’s reporting idea。所以引述别人的论点，比如“某某认为…”“某某的观点是…”，不掺入任何作者的感情色彩。
3. cite, refer, 和state。Cite和refer后面都要加引用的原文，也就是要用引号引起来的，而state则要paraphrase，也就是转述，但不能用人家原来的语句。
如果你用了现在时或者现在完成时，就跟你扯上关系了，一般来说或多或少表示你赞同这个观点。The research findings may correspond to the writer’s own opinion, the current state of knowledge or the research itself may be close to the writer’s own research.
Avoid ‘we’, because it is often unclear who ‘we’ refers to. You and your marker? You and a co-author? The whole world???
It is also very bad style to refer to yourself as ‘we’—writers sometimes do it when they have problems with their essay and they want to ‘distance; themselves from it, saying in effect, ‘Do not blame me for this result’.
Avoid ‘we must teach like this’ or ‘we should concluded that…’. If you do this, you are making two mistakes. First, you are telling your marker what to think and do (not a good idea) and second, you are limiting your own position. You are saying ‘things are defined and clear cut’, whereas they are often NOT!
Avoid ‘you’. It is too personal and conversational. That the ‘expert talking to learner’ style used in textbooks and handbooks is NOT appropriate in formal writing, since you are still a learner.
You can use ‘I’ at several points, but making certain the sentence refers to something you are, as a student and as the author of the assignment, responsible for. Thus you could put ‘I shall divide the argument into two main sections’ (you could also write ‘the argument is divided into two main sections’). On the other hand, you do not want to write, ‘I have argued elsewhere that adults learn grammar faster than children’, as this makes you sound like a world expert with 30 books published!
Try and avoid ‘I think X is a good idea’. We want you to argue the case WHY X is or is not appropriate, rather than simply assert(=state) that you think it is. This is one of the big differences between conversation and university assignments. In an assignment, you have to make sure you give the evidence for opinions and you need to use impersonal verbs like ‘seem’.
Thus you would write, ‘Smith would seem to be wrong in arguing that…’ or ‘This seems incorrect’, rather than ‘I think Smith is wrong’.
1 Aviod "can","should"
You can use 'can' to describe yourself as in this sentence: 'It is hoped that the essay CAN...'. However, you had better not use 'can' as in 'The teachers can do something...', which sounds like an order. The same or we say even worse with 'should'.
If you say 'the government should...', it would be a very bad style. You are learners but not policy makers--the only thing you can do is to argume or make suggestion but not ORDER/DEMAND/FORCE. What you can do is to argue convincingly and try your best to persuade others but not force them to believe. Don't make yourself so important--as you are, in fact, not important! You can try 'may''had better''might' more.
2 Avoid emotional and poetic words
避免诗情画意的用词。在formal writing中，人就是人，没必要说a famous writer，也没必要出现一些过于情绪化的词语。
Avoiding emotive words can be difficult in a foreign language, but it is very important to try. Avoid words like ‘My dream is to answer this question’ or ‘I am starting this fascinating essay with a wonderful, and deeply enriching, tantalizing comment by the highly celebrated and world famous expert R. Smith’. You may personally think that Smith is wonderful and justly famous, but in an academic assignment, PEOPLE ARE JUST PEOPLE! Your argument depends on the content of your points, not on the fame or excitement of the topic, the author or your opinion.
3 Avoid ‘some’
The British use ‘some’ in conversation all the time. BUT it does not have the same effect in writing. There, it appears weak; this makes you look as though you are not in control of your own argument. Try and use more positive expressions, like ‘a number of Ws’, ‘a series of Xs’, ‘several Ys’, ‘a range of Zs’.
4 Aviod 'as we all know' 'it can not be denied' 'there is no denying that...' 'everyone knows'... 'only by doing this, can we...'
Then why most of you keep using this kind of phrases in your essay? Remember, most likely, there is no single standard answer in social science--since people have different understandings towards different phenomena. Also, remember, the one you can represent is YOU yourself, but no one else. So you CAN'T say 'as we all know'! As I often DON'T know!
5 Aviod 'as far as I am concerned' 'I think' 'in my opinion'
The marker knows clearly that YOU have written this essay--so they know clearly that it is YOUR opinion! So why keep repeating these 废话？记住，写作千万不要凑字数。