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首页 > 新闻动态>英国论文的写作技巧辅导

英国论文的写作技巧辅导

2019-08-29 15:05:20

论文写作中常出现的语法问题


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1.主语和谓语的单数和复数要一致

英语中名词有它的单数和复数形式,动词也有它的单数和复数形式,二者要一致.单数主语(subject)名词要用动词(verb)的单数(singular)形式,复数主语名词要用动词的复数(plural)形式.我们写中文的不太习惯英语的这种写法,很难做到不假思索地配对,需要特别留心才能不出错误,特别是当主语名词和动词被分开时.试看下面的例句.

A high percentage of peptides that are made of amino acids are present in the sample.

A high percentage才是真正的主语,而不是邻近的amino acids,所以应该用单数形式.

宜改为:A high percentage of peptides that are made of amino acids is present in the sample.

让事情更复杂的是英语名词被分为不同的种类,其中的一类叫集合名词.它既可以当单数用词也可以当复数用.集合名词当整体来讲时是单数,每个成员作为个体时用复数.

The number of mice in the experiment was increased.

A number of mice have died.

All of the samples were analyzed.

All of the safety procedures was strictly followed.

代词none既可以是单数也可以是复数.当none后面的词是单数时,用单数动词.当none后面的词是复数时,用复数动词.

None of the information was useful.

None of the animals were starved.

描写数量,重量,体积,时间等的词用单数,但如果是分次添加或减少时用复数.在这个意义上同集合名词类似.

1.5 ml was added.

10 g was added.

6 hours was the required incubation time.

5 g were added stepwise.

简写的数量单位,如mg,ml,s等,单数和复数的写法是一样的,如1mg,5 mg.

一些词如series,type,portion,class,要用单数形式.

A series of derivatives of penicillin was prepared.

A large portion of the reports is focused on how to deal with the increased cost.

Data,criteria,phenomena,media是复数形式,他们的单数形式分别是datum,criterion,phenomenon,medium.


2、修饰语同主语名词关系上要一致

当用1)动名词(gerund),2)分词短句(participle),3)不定式短句(infinitive)作修饰语时,修饰语中的动词要同主句中的主语名词关系上要一致.

科技杂志论文中有这种语法错误的情况较多.严格来讲这只是种语法错误,一般不影响对句子的内容的理解,所以很多作者不太注意.编辑和阅稿人有时也没有严格要求改正.比如下面就是Nature杂志2006年第439卷中的一个例子.

Using the enhancer GAL4/UAS expression system,short-term memory traces of aversive and appetitive olfactory conditioning have been assigned to output synapses of subsets of intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies.

1)动名词

After finishing the purification,the activity of the isolated compound was then studied.

We or I是动名词finishing形式上的主语,同主句的主语activity不一致.

宜改为:After purification was finished,the activity of the isolated compound was then studied.

或:After finishing the purification,we studied the activity of the isolated compound.

Treated with the new drug,the blood cholesterol levels of participants were lowered by an average of 30%.

宜改为:Treated with the new drug,participants showed an average of 30%decrease in their blood cholesterol levels.

2)分词短句

The iron concentration was determined using the Fenton reaction method.

The iron concentration同using the Fenton reaction method关系上不一致.

宜改为:The iron concentration was determined by the Fenton reaction method.

或:We determined the iron concentration using the Fenton reaction method.

When measuring the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide,air samples from a remote place,such as an island,is preferred.

宜改为:When the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide is measured,air samples from a remote place,such as an island,is preferred.

3)不定式短句

To further investigate the potential role of biking in causing infertility,an expanded population of biking athletes was surveyed.

不定式短语的形式主语是we or I,同主句主语population不一致.

宜改为:To further investigate the potential role of biking in causing infertility,we surveyed an expanded population of biking athletes.

To confirm the diagnosis,blood test was ordered.

宜改为:To confirm the diagnosis,the doctor ordered blood test.


3.主语和主语的行动(谓语)在逻辑上要一致

由于一些中文和英文的表达方式不同,把中文直接翻译成相应的英文会不讲.一个经常被引用的语句是“price is cheap”.中文可以说价格便宜,但英文只能说价格高或低.物品可以说cheap or expensive.用中文的表达方式来写英文,会出现主语和主语的行动在逻辑上不一致.在写一个句子时要注意行动的真正主语名词是什么.下面是一些例子.

The highest antibiotic production was obtained at 48 h.

不是production而是production yield.

宜改为:The highest antibiotic production yield was obtained at 48 h.

The scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals was based on Fenton reaction.

不是activity而是assay of activity

宜改为:The assay of scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals was based on Fenton reaction.

The pharmacological compounds of ginseng were identified.

药物活性化合物应该是pharmacologically active compounds.

宜改为:The pharmacologically active compounds of ginseng were identified.


4、代名词和其代理的先行词要一致

代名词和其代理的先行词要在人称,单数或复数,和性别上一致.一些常见的代词是:he,his(阳性单数);she,her(阴性单数);it,its(单数);they,their,these,those(复数);that,this(单数).比如下面的例句中,compounds和their一致,protein和it一致.

Many related compounds were synthesized and their antivirus activities were studied.

Growth hormone is a protein.It promotes human body growth.

下面的例句中,the应该用their取代.

The potential antioxidant capacity of compound A and compound B could be deduced from the protective effects against oxidative stresses.

宜改为:The potential antioxidant capacity of compound A and compound B could be deduced from their protective effects against oxidative stresses.

用代名词时除了要保持一致外,还要避免代理不清的情况出现,以免不清楚它们到底指什么而引起误解.

The crude sample was dissolved in water and extracted with organic solvent.It was then evaporated

to yield the product.

It指organic layer还是指water layer?不明确,最好不用it.

宜改为:The crude sample was dissolved in water and extracted with organic solvent.The organic layer was then evaporated to yield the product.

During meal hormones are released after which blood flow increases in the stomach.

Which既可以代表meal也可以代表hormones,容易产生误解.

宜改为:During meal hormones are released.After their release stomach blood flow increases.


5、位置的强调作用

在英语写作中,若要强调某件事情,就把它放在句子的前面.中文写作中,有关句子的条件,时间等的修饰句都是放在前面,而主句总是放在后面.而英文中即可以把条件或修饰句放在前面,也可以放在后面.放在前面就表示你要强调修饰句的条件.比如:

Before the hurricane arrived,most of the people have moved out.

Most of the people have moved out before the hurricane arrived.

在英语中两种位置关系都可以.前者强调在hurricane来之前,后者强调moved out.而在中文中,只有一种说法,反过来说”大多数人都离开了在hurricane来之前”就不对了.按中文的位置关系直译成英文,往往会不确切.同样按英文的位置关系直译成中文也是怪怪的.我上小学的孩子回家来喊“我要吃冰激凌今天,我没吃好长时间了”,就是英文“I want ice cream today.I have not eaten it for a long time.”的直接翻译.

科技写作中,一般还是把主句先写出来,除非你想强调修饰的是条件.

Through scavenging free radicals,antioxidants play an important role in protecting against complex diseases.

宜改为:Antioxidants play an important role in protecting against complex diseases through scavenging free radicals.

In microbial fermentation,phosphorus is commonly the major growth-limiting nutrient.

宜改为:Phosphorus is commonly the major growth-limiting nutrient in microbial fermentation.

主动句中事情的执行者(作者)放在前面,有强调事情的执行者(作者)的意思,而不是要研究的事物.被动句强调要研究的事物,这也是为什么科技论文中被动句用得比较多的原因之一.

We studied their effects on cell growth.强调We.

Their effects on cell growth were studied.强调Their effects.


6、修饰词和被修饰词要邻近

科技写作要求严谨,明确.为了严格定义一个事物,往往要加上限制性的修饰词或短句.比如描写实验用的mice时,一般不会只说mice,而是用类似“NCI-H23 tumor bearing female athymic nude mice”的描述.前面有5个修饰词来定义研究用的mice这时一般把最窄的定义写在最前面,最广的定义写在后面.修饰语要靠近同被修饰的对象.因修饰语和被修饰的词被隔开,而造成意思混乱的情况很多.下面是一些例子.

Inhibition of Acid B on xanthine oxidase was also reported.

Inhibition of后面应紧跟xanthine oxidase,而不是Acid B,隔开后句子就很难读.

宜改为:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by Acid B was also reported.

The chelating activities for ferrous ion of the Acid B were assessed.

The chelating activities后面应紧跟Acid B,而不是ferrous ion.

宜改为:The chelating activities of the Acid B for ferrous ion were assessed.

Reducing power represents the electron donating capacity,which may serve as a significant indicator of potential antioxidant activity.

用which开头的修饰句,是要修饰reducing power,而不是修饰electron donating capacity,所以要紧跟在reducing power后面.

宜改为:Reducing power,which may serve as a significant indicator of potential antioxidant activity,represents the electron donating capacity.或:Reducing power represents the electron donating capacity.It may serve as a significant indicator of potential antioxidant activity.


7、主语和谓语在句子中的位置要靠近

要使句子的可读性强,有两个因素特别需要注意.一是句子的长短要合适.研究表明一个句子中有1 3-20个字时最合适阅读.太短的句子有零碎的感觉,而太长的句子读起来有困难.二是主语和谓语动词要靠近.如果被隔开太远,就会有被隔离的感觉,句子读起来就会比较困难,虽然从语法上来讲是可行的.这主要同人类大脑处理文字信息的过程和方式有关.当人们读到主语时,自然而然地期望知道主语后面的行动,也就是结果.在行动(谓语)出现之前,读者需要记住主语是什么,同时又要阅读和理解下面的文字,读起来很累.就像要屏住呼吸等待要发生的事情,只有当谓语出现,知道了主题的行动后,才能呼出这口气.时间长了自然不舒服.

Lincomycin,one of the lincosamide antimicrobial agents which was first isolated more than fifty years ago,is used as a major antibiotic for the treatment of diseases caused by most Gram-positive bacteria.

宜改为:Lincomycin is one of the lincosamide antimicrobial agents which were first isolated more than fifty years ago.It is used as a major antibiotic for the treatment of diseases caused by most Gram-positive bacteria.


8、名词作形容词

科技写作中经常会用名词来作为形容词使用,如room temperature,university researchers.当用一个名词来修饰另一个名词时,意义一般都很清楚.但当三个名词放在一起,或两个名词前再加一个形容词时,就要小心.有的情况下,3个或3个以上的名词放在一起,表达的意思很清楚,也是一种很简洁的表达方式.如:blood white cell number,prostate cancer patient,Beijing University medical school student.但有时会有多种讲法.Top university researchers可以是researchers of(only)top university也可以是(all)university researchers who are top.多个名词排在一起,即使表达明确,也给拥挤的感觉.应避免使用多个名词的修饰方式.最好的办法是用介词或其它方式来把他们分开,以便清楚表达它们的修饰关系.多个名词罗列的情况经常发生,下面多举一些例子.

H e wrote the quality control group reports.

宜改为:He wrote the reports of the quality control group.

The patient showed chronic liver disease symptoms.

宜改为:The patient showed symptoms of chronic liver disease.

The human brain oxygen level is quite high.

宜改为:The oxygen level in human brain is quite high.

Their specific inhibition producing effects on fat containing food intake were assessed.

宜改为:Their specific effects of inhibition on the intake of fat containing food were assessed.

The present investigation evaluated various specific drug sample combinations.

宜改为:The present investigation evaluated various combinations of specific drug samples.

 

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