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SAT阅读题型:假设题

发布时间: 2020-07-01
文章来源: 考而思
摘要:
这一类题题干的基本特征就是含有一个词assumption。通常题目会问文章的某几行是基于什么样的一个假设(based on或rests on),也就是问原文能够成立的条件是怎样的。在SAT的阅读考试当中,通常能在出题点看到的是导致的某个结果或达到的某个目的。比如问一个方法基于什么样的假设,意思就是说要达到某个目的,这样的方法为什么能够有效。

  SAT阅读中有一类假设题,它和其它题型的区别在于它不仅需要理解定位点的句子,还需要逻辑关系的推理。那么,解决这类问题有什么方法呢?

  这一类题题干的基本特征就是含有一个词assumption。通常题目会问文章的某几行是基于什么样的一个假设(based on或rests on),也就是问原文能够成立的条件是怎样的。在SAT的阅读考试当中,通常能在出题点看到的是导致的某个结果或达到的某个目的。比如问一个方法基于什么样的假设,意思就是说要达到某个目的,这样的方法为什么能够有效。

  具体思路为,若把原文看成B,选项看成A,那么A是B的假设,意思就是说若A成立B就一定成立(由A一定能推出B),而若B成立A不一定成立(即B不一定能推出A)。比如说,你想长寿,就要少抽烟少喝酒,这句话基于的假设就是只要少抽烟少喝酒就一定能长寿。

  做题的时候,理解出题点后要对自己提问为什么出题点的内容能够成立,在五个选项中找到一个符合这个提问的选项。

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  例如OG中900页的一道题:

  My physiotherapist expressed himself similarly: "Adaptation follows a different path in each person. The nervous system creates its own paths. You are the neurologist--you must see this all the time.

  The physiotherapist's remarks reveal the assumption that

  A. patients have complete control over the progress of their recovery

  B. each neurologist follows a different path to understanding

  C. all neurologists are aware of the nervous system's adaptability

  D. the author is inadequately informed about the intricacies of the muscular system

  E. some neurologists consider both healthy and injured brain processes to be parallel

  题目问理疗师的话揭示了一个什么假设。理疗师的意思是:适应对于每个人来说都是基于不同的路径的。神经系统创建了它自己的路径,你就是那个神经学家,你必须时时刻刻看到这一点。意思也就是说你作为一个神经学家,必须时刻了解神经系统创建不同适应的不同路径。理解选项后可以发现,只有C选项“所有的神经学家都对神经系统的适应性有意识”成立时,这句话才是能够成立的,其他的都为不相关项。

  真题:

  I had been trained in the tradition of acting called "psychological realism." A basic tenet of psychological realism is that characters live inside of you and that you create a lifelike portrayal of the character through a process of realizing your own similarity to the character. When I later became a teacher of acting, I began to became more and more troubled by the self-oriented method. I began to look for ways to engage my students in putting themselves in other people's shoes. This went against the grain of the psychological realism tradition, which was to get the character to walk into a classroom of people in their real lives.

  The author's explanation in the fourth paragraph suggests that the "self-oriented method" rests on the assumption that

  A. audience members appreciate complex nuance of character

  B. the playwright's biography provides the main evidence for interpreting character

  C. actors have already felt the full range of human emotions

  D. actors are extremely independent and self-serving people.

  E. Actors' lives become fulfilled through their dramatic portrayals.

  可以看到题干所问的self-oriented method就是文中说到的psychological realism。而这个方法的一个基本理念就是角色就住在你体内,你通过一个实现自身与角色相似性的过程,来创造一个活生生的对角色的扮演。为什么这个方法能够成立呢,为什么能够通过实现自身与角色相似性的过程,来创造活生生的角色扮演呢?显然,只有选项中的C选项“演员已经体会过了所有人类情感”成立,这一点才能够成立。

  从刚刚这道例题中我们也可以看出,假设题的和其它题型的重大区别还在于正确答案中允许极端词的存在,甚至很多只有含有极端词的答案才是正确的,考生需要耐心体会其中的逻辑关系。

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