Toggle Menu

留学生写论文和审题的Instructional word

发布时间: 2020-07-17
文章来源: 考而思
摘要:
大多数大学作业,如essays、reports、literature reviews、critiques、proposals等,会包括instructional words。这些词是告诉你,你的作文应该怎么写。你必须明白到底这些话是意思。不要误解的问题是很重要的。

  提到这一块,很多留学生不管是考试还是写作业,都不会审题,搞不懂题目的背后意思,导致自己理解的与审题的内容差的很远,自然自己的作业以及考试分数低或者不及格的情况出现,那么留学生写论文或者考试如何做好审题呢?

留学生写论文和审题的Instructional word

  可能很多同学不知道什么叫“Instructional words”。

  不知道也非常正常。

  因为你去百度,根本找不到中文版的介绍!!!连百度百科都没有收进去。

  国内没有已有的翻译,那榜样君就直译“Instructional words”为“指导性词”。

  可是,在国外,这是非常重要的。

  特别是阅读题目和写论文,这简直就是要命!

  大多数大学作业,如essays、reports、literature reviews、critiques、proposals等,会包括instructional words。

  这些词是告诉你,你的作文应该怎么写。你必须明白到底这些话是意思。不要误解的问题是很重要的。

  但是,你一定见过他们。

  例如:analyse、argue、describe等。

  你以为很简单?绝对不!难着呢。

  今天榜样网GETOP君给大家做最最最全的科普。请注意收藏。

  ā á ǎ à 我是存在感为1的分割线 ā á ǎ à

  ā á ǎ à 我是存在感为2的分割线 ā á ǎ à

  ā á ǎ à 我是存在感为3的分割线 ā á ǎ à

  建议直接看英文含义。

  ▓ account for

  ✎英文含义:give reasons for; explain

  ✎中文翻译:对…做出解释;说明……的原因

  ▓ give an account of

  ✎英文含义:describe

  ✎中文翻译:说明;叙述;汇报

  ▓ to take into account

  ✎英文含义:to consider, to think of

  ✎中文翻译:考虑到

  ▓ analyse

  ✎英文含义:divide into parts and describe each part and explain their relationship; discuss a problem

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 分析;分解;细察

  榜样君提醒:如果你觉得你只需要说一堆东西,就叫分析,那就是注定牺牲。它的内在含义是,首先你得Separate or break up something into its component parts,这样你才可以discover its nature proportion, function, relationship等。这非常需要critical的思维。分析过程中,请注意你的内在逻辑。一堆东西放是没有用的,有节奏有逻辑的分析,才是教授讲师想要的。

  ▓ argue

  ✎英文含义:systematically support or reject a position by presenting reasons and evidence for acceptance or rejection

  ✎中文翻译:vi. 争论,辩论;提出理由;vt. 辩论,争论;证明;说服

  ▓ assess

  ✎英文含义:decide how important something is and give your reasons

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 评定

  榜样君提醒:别看这个词简单,实际要你写的很多。关键在于说出他的重要性:Decide how important, useful, valuable or effective something is。然后再Identify merits and limitations. 最后,Justify your decision.

  ▓ assume

  ✎英文含义:first accept that the following is true

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 假定

  ▓ classify

  ✎英文含义:arrange into groups or classes

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 分类;分等

  ▓ comment on

  ✎英文含义:explain why something is important

  ✎中文翻译:对……评论

  ▓ compare

  ✎英文含义:describe the ways in which two things/characteristics are alike, but also mention differences

  ✎中文翻译:vi. 相比,匹敌;比较,区别;比拟(常与to连用);vt. 比拟,喻为;[语]构成

  榜样君提醒:这一般是两样东西的比较,比较啥呢?首先需要Identify 他们的相同点和相似点。可以是concepts, methods or theories. 然后再比较他们的区别,即使问题里没有明确叫你去比较. If appropriate, justify your choice.

  ▓ contrast

  ✎英文含义:describe the ways in which two things, qualities or problems are different

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 使对比;使与…对照;vi. 对比;形成对照

  榜样君提醒:这个就很明确了,主要是Identify differences了. If appropriate, give reasons for your preference. 所以,请根据情况而定要不要写上你的原因。

  ▓ criticise

  ✎英文含义:analyse and discuss faults and disadvantages, or merits and facts

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 批评;吹毛求疵;vi. 批评;吹毛求疵

  榜样君提醒:这个词很绝。你首先需要表达你的judgements regarding the correctness or merit of the factors being considered. 然后是去讨论包括strong和weak points,接着就是give the results of your own analysis。注意,必须给出你分析的结果。Student insights are expected and arguments must be justified.

  ▓ define

  ✎英文含义:provide clear, concise, authoritative meanings with key details

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 定义;使明确

  榜样君提醒:就是非常明确地给出定义。然而,在这里,details are not necessarily required, 但是需要很简要地cite the boundaries or limitations of the definition。

  ▓ describe

  ✎英文含义:give details, recount or relate in sequence to illustrate the topic

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 描述,形容;描绘

  榜样君提醒:需要你回忆所有的facts, processes or events. 你不是被要求去explain或者interpret,而是让你去提供一个全面的描述, emphasising the most important points。所以,弄清楚了吧,是需要讲清楚the features。

  ▓ discuss

  ✎英文含义:give both sides of an argument (evidence) and then your own opinion (A warning: 'discuss' is often used loosely by lecturers when they actually mean 'describe')

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 讨论;论述,辩论

  榜样君提醒:直截了当,就是要Present a point of view。这就需要description 和interpretation了。而且,你的观点必须有carefully chosen and authoritative evidence去支持。

  ▓ distinguish between

  ✎英文含义:describe the difference between two things

  ✎中文翻译:v. 区别;分辨

  ▓ elaborate

  ✎英文含义:Answer fully with reasons and examples (Yes or No is not enough)

  ✎中文翻译:vi. 详细描述;vt. 详细阐述

  ▓ evaluate

  ✎英文含义:decide and explain how great, valuable or important something is

  look at reasons for and against, draw conclusions (you may judge in favour of one side)

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 评价;vi. 评价。

  榜样君提醒:展示一个问题的判断,通过强调strengths and advantages, and weaknesses and limitations。重点是评估the value, worth or relevance of the matter。

  ▓ explain

  ✎英文含义:clarify and interpret meaning in order to show reasons, causes and effects

  ✎中文翻译:v. 说明;解释

  榜样君提醒:你应该主要的关注焦点在于 'why',或者在于 'how',然后阐明以下几点:reasons, causes and effects。你被测试的是你的think critically的能力,练习你的洞察力。

  ▓ enumerate

  ✎英文含义:Provide a list or outline form of reply. In such questions you should recount, one by one, but concisely, the points required.

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 列举;枚举

  ▓ identify

  ✎英文含义:point out and describe

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 确定;识别,辨认出;vi. 确定;认同;一致

  ▓ indicate

  ✎英文含义:show, explain

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 表明;指出;预示;象征

  ▓ illustrate

  ✎英文含义:use examples or diagrams that prove the answer is correct and clarify meaning

  ✎中文翻译:vi. 举例;vt. 阐明,举例说明;图解

  榜样君提醒:这个是让你做explanation。你可以阐明你的回答,通过presenting a figure, picture, diagram or concrete example.

  ▓ justify

  ✎英文含义:provide reasons for a decision or viewpoint

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 证明…是正当的;替…辩护;vi. 证明合法

  榜样君提醒:首先,用evidence来支持你的argument。然后,解释你的conclusions or decisions是怎么来的。更重要的是,去预测和处理那些可能的不同意见。

  ▓ outline

  ✎英文含义:give an organised description in which you state main points or features but omit detail

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 概述;略述;描画…轮廓

  榜样君提醒:教授和老师需要看到的,是organised description。你就需要给到他们main points and essential supplementary materials, 但是忽略小细节,不用在那写有的没的。用systematic arrangement or classification来进行表达。

  ▓ prove

  ✎英文含义:confirm or verify by stating and evaluating evidence or by logical reasoning

  ✎中文翻译:vi. 证明是;vt. 证明

  ▓ relate

  ✎英文含义:emphasise connections, relationships and associations

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 叙述;使…有联系

  榜样君提醒:这是强调relationships的,所以你的答案应该要emphasise connection and associations in a descriptive manner.

  ▓ review

  ✎英文含义:re-examine, analyse and comment briefly on the major points

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 回顾;检查;复审;vi. 回顾;写评论

  ▓ state

  ✎英文含义:formally set out a position

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 规定;声明;陈述

  榜样君提醒:这是不需要废话的。简要表达high points。那些细节、插图或例子,可以省略。

  ▓ summarise

  ✎英文含义:give a concise account of main points of a subject, omitting details or examples

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 概括(等于summarize)

  榜样君提醒:简单粗暴,不要细节,不要废话,直接出结论。

  ▓ trace

  ✎英文含义:Present events or stages of a process in order.

  ✎中文翻译:vt. 追踪,查探;描绘;回溯;vi. 追溯

  榜样君提醒:要写出a thing, event or idea的development, process or history,特别是要列出最早到最新的那些证据,展示出变化。

  另外,题目中的这些词,是什么意思?

  validity, valid

  is there evidence and are there facts to prove this statement?

  limitations

  explain where something is not useful or not relevant

  list

  provide an itemised series of points (often expressed in point form)

  with/by reference to

  make sure you write about the following subject

  role

  what part something plays, how it works, especially in co-operation with others

  in the context of

  referring to, within the subject of

  留学生想要做好审题这一个环节,那么一定对上述词有所了解,并且知道这些词所表达的意义是什么,如果不了解,作业和考试很难获得高分,如果你不sure这些指导性词是什么意思的时候,可以再读一次本帖,加深理解。毕竟,要正确解题,还是不容易的。

凡来源标注“考而思”均为考而思原创文章,版权均属考而思教育所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他任何方式复制、发表。

未注明"来源等稿件均为转载稿,如涉及版权请联系在线客服处理。

当前文章链接: https://www.kaoersi.com/xinwendongtai/7511.html

同步课件辅导、作业补习、论文润色、考题讲解、Appeal申诉、名校入学内测考试


添加微信【kaoersi02】立即咨询,备注来源“官网”~

vx:kaoersi02

客服回复略有延迟,可直接添加微信:kaoersi02(备注官网)
出国前
出国后
同步专业课预习
查看详情>
入学笔面试辅导
查看详情>
学术论文写作
查看详情>
海外选课指导
查看详情>
同步课件讲解
查看详情>
作业习题补习
查看详情>
论文全程辅导
查看详情>
考前冲刺辅导
查看详情>
报名表单
展开